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    • Note: I just realized tonight that I didn't have these learning objectives saved, so the answers are very thrown together. Feel free to edit if they don't seem right to you.


1. Begin the process of understanding the role of nutrition in health promotion and disease prevention, particularly as related to chronic diseases.

Good nutrition can help prevent, and in some cases can reverse if done after the fact, the incidence of chronic diseases such as hypertension, obesity, and diabetes.



2. Recognize the current USDA Food Guide Pyramid and explain why the recommendations and format differ from the previous version.

The new pyramid includes exercise, and de-emphasizes the role of grains in the diet, making it seem more equitable overall. It also includes amounts of food to eat daily, rather than the general 3-5 servings.



3. List, define and rank the importance in decision analysis of the different types of nutritional research studies.

Controlled Clinical Trial – Direct intervention placebo vs. treatment.

Prospective Cohort Study and Case Control Study – Looking at habits and results and extrapolating from there.

Documented Clinical Observation – person x ate this and got better, but person y did not and still got better.

Ecological study – different habits in different countries and results.

Experience, Tradition, Conjecture.



4. Using the Food Pyramid, describe the general characteristics of a healthy diet, including the recommended contribution [proportion] of various food groups, good common sources of individual nutrients, and foods to be consumed in limited amounts.

Vegetables and fruits should make up half your plate. Limit processed grains. Fats are okay, but try to limit them to unsaturated fats and oils. Vegetables should be colorful to get the most vitamins. Exercise daily.



5. Summarize in simple and concise language (as if to a patient) the research supporting the recommendations contained within the Food Pyramid.

Studies show that the people who followed the USDA food pyramid had a lower rate of chronic disease, such as diabetes and obesity. Those who followed the Healthy Eating Pyramid also reduced their heart risk by up to 40%.



6. Recognize the limitations underlying nutritional research studies, the role of the media in the public nutrition education and acknowledge the economic and political forces that may shape the governmental nutrition guidelines.



7. Using the Harvard Healthy Eating Pyramid, describe the general characteristics of a healthy diet, including the recommended contribution [proportion] of various food groups, good common sources of individual nutrients, and foods to be consumed in limited amounts.

Whole grains, fruits, vegetables and healthy oils should be eaten most commonly. Dairy and lean proteins, such as fish, poultry, and nuts should be eaten less commonly, but still regularly. Finally, red meats, butter, and other 'unhealthy' food choices should be eaten sparingly.



8. Contrast the government recommendations with those of the Healthy Eating Pyramid espoused by the Harvard Public School of Health and explain the reason why certain recommendations differ.

The USDA pyramid minimizes the role of healthy oils, and doesn't mention to limit red meat. This is probably because the cattle industry in this country is a huge business, and the government recommending to cut red meat consumption would have lowered their profits.

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