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1. Define hormone, target cell, and receptor in the context of endocrine signaling.


2. Summarize the principle of negative feedback control of hormone secretion.


3. Summarize the principles of positive feedback and feed forward control of hormone secretion.


4. Understand the bases of hormone measurements; e.g., radio-immuno assay, ELISA.


5. Contrast the terms endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine based on the site of hormone release and the pathway to the target tissue. Provide an example of each, and describe major differences in mechanisms of action of peptides working through membrane receptors and steroids, vitamin D, and thyroid hormones working through nuclear receptors.


6. Understand how the generation of a variety of second messengers can amplify hormone signals and lead to the generation of specific biologic responses.


7. Compare and contrast hormone actions that are exerted through changes in gene expression with those exerted through changes in protein phosphorylation.


8. Define G-protein coupled receptors.


9. Outline the activation of downstream intracellular signaling cascades by heterotrimeric G-proteins.


10. Describe the generation of second messengers such as cAMP, inositol triphosphate (IP3), diacyglycerol (DAG) and Ca2+, and explain how they activate key protein kinases.

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