Health and Disease States WorldwideEdit

1. Describe how health or disease states are measured worldwide. Define DALYs and understand why the official DALYs for malnutrition may understate its true impact on global health.

DALY = Disability adjusted life years. Morbidity (Years of Life Lost) + Mortality (Years Lost to Disability). 178 Million children are stunted by malnutrition (28%), less than 2 standard deviations below the global mean.

DALYs do not really take into account the loss of IQ, height, etc.

Severe Early Childhood DiarrheaEdit

2. List the effects that severe early childhood diarrhea can have on the growing child and into adulthood.

Dehydration can lead to malnutrition, multiple illnesses. This can result in loss of IQ, height, limbs, and increased morbidity.


3. Define malnutrition. Compare and contrast Kwashiorkor and Marasmus. Malnutrition- not getting enough of the nutrients

Kwashiorkor and MarasmusEdit

Kwashiorkor is literally the second child syndrome, where the child gets enough carbohydrates, but not enough other nutrients. The result is a puffy face and edema that masks the wasting. Marasmus is wasting from not enough calories or protein--looks like a little old man face.

Factors that contribute to malnutritionEdit

4. List those factors that contribute to malnutrition.

Simple scarcity. Disease, diarrhea.

Malnutrition's Impact on USA HealthEdit

5. Describe an example of how malnutrition in developing areas can impact our health in the USA.

  • Emerging and resistant infection
  • Economic impact (we're in it together)
  • Explodin population (without good health; Malthus had it backwards!)
  • Erosion of our humanity (if we turn our backs)
  • Evolution or Extinction

ApoE4 and CognitionEdit

6. Describe the link between ApoE4 and survival/protecting cognition in children.

  • ApoE4 is the "Alzheimer gene"
  • May protect cognition with significant malnutrition
  • ApoE4 upregulates argine receptors and upregulates the argentine receptor


7. Describe one possible solution for malnutrition in Developing Areas outlined in the lecture slides.

Education, outreach, genetically altered foods with better nutrition, etc.