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1. Recognize the 20 amino acids that commonly occur in proteins and classify them according to polarity and charge.


2. Define and recognize the bonds and forces (peptide, disulfide, hydrogen bonds; hydrophobic, dipole-dipole, van der Waals, electrostatic interactions) that contribute to protein structure and function.


3. Understand the basis of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary protein structure.


4. Define the following features of protein structure: α-helix, β-sheet, β-strand, parallel, anti-parallel, β-turn, loop, motif, helix-turn-helix, leucine zipper, zinc finger, triple helix, fibrils.


5. List common protein post-translational modifications.


6. Provide examples of how abnormal protein structure promotes human disease.


7. Define the terms “peripheral” and “integral” with respect to membrane proteins.


8. Recognize common protein membrane anchors.


9. Define and differentiate between proteoglycans, glycoproteins and glycolipids.


10. Recognize the major carbohydrates in the human body.


11. Review the structures and nomenclature of mono-, di-, tri- and polysaccharides


(including glucose, maltose, fructose, sucrose, galactose, lactose).


12. Define the following terms with respect to carbohydrate structure: D and L designation, aldose vs. ketose, aldehyde vs. keto group, chiral center, enantiomer, isomer, epimer, hemiacetal vs. hemiketal, anomeric carbon, a and b designation, mutarotation.


13. List some common modifications to sugar structure.


14. Appreciate the significance of the orientation of the glycosidic bonds for digestion and metabolism.


15. Understand the standard nomenclature for fatty acids (define omega and alpha carbons and recognize their location on a diagram).


16. List the essential fatty acids in the human diet.


17. Recognize the structure of cis vs. trans unsaturated fatty acids and the effects on the fatty acid’s physical properties.


18. Draw the basic structure of a triglyceride. Recognize the structural components of a phospholipid and sphingolipid.


19. Understand the effects of chain length and double bonds on the melting point of fatty acids.


20. Describe the structure and common components of a lipid bilayer.

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